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Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Hemostat Gelatin Sponge for Surgery Application

2016-05-11 / Categories:hemostatic, sponge,
In even simple extractions, rapid clotting helps to prevent infection and initiates the process of tissue repail and healing.Absorbable materials which aid hemostasis and can be used to accelerate healing have advantages in surgery.

Proper handling is essential to control bleeding and only the required amount should be used, even though the hemostat is expected to dissolve promptly. A dry local hemostat absorbs several times of its weight and expands postoperatively. Therefore, when an absorbable hemostatic agent is retained on or near bony or neural spaces, the minimum amount should be left after hemostasis is achieved. Minimum inflammation without strong foreign body reactions or blockade of healing is desirable after the use of local hemostats. Local hemostat can be used to arrest suture hole bleeding and bleeding from the cross-sectional surface of parenchymatous organs such as liver and spleen.

Recently, gelatin is known to contribute activation of macrophage and a high hemostatic effect. Gelatin is, practically, more convenient than commercially used collagen because a concentrated collagen solution is extremely difficult to prepare from native collagen and thus gelatin is far more economical than the collagen.

Among other aldehydes which are used in protein matrix, glutaraldehyde (GTA) is advantageous, for its rapid reaction, low price, availability, high solubility in aqueous solution, and its reaction with a large number of available amino groups present in gelatin structure [5]. However, the reaction of GTA with proteins is highly heterogeneous and complicated and nonreacted aldehydes may be released and cause toxic effects.

In general, sponge-type hydrogels have been produced using the freezing technique and are currently utilized as wound dressings.

The freeze-drying technique has been widely adopted in pharmaceutical and food industries, because this technique provides increased stability or rapid solubility in many applications, such as drug delivery including site-specific and antibiotic delivery systems. In this study, a combination of the porogen method, using only water as a solvent, and the freeze-drying technique is introduced to produce highly porous scaffolds from biodegradable gelatin.

Materials and methods

An alkaline-processed gelatin with pH 47 and theoretical molecular weight of 100000 was purchased from Merck Company. It is composed of glycine (27%), proline and hydroxyproline (25%), glutamic acid (10%), arginine (8%), alanine (9%), aspartic acid (6%) and other amino acids (15%). Glutaraldehyde was also Merck Co.

2.2. Preparation of gelatin sponge

Porous, freeze-dried gelatin sponge was prepared by three main procedures including crosslinking, swelling, and lyophilization. Preparation method is schematically illustrated in Figure 2. Briefly, gelatin solution is prepared by solving gelatin in double-distilled water at 50 ºC. GTAaqueous solution was added to the aqueous solution of gelatin to give the final concentration.