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Microporous Biodegradable Polymeric Sponge for Surgical Haemostasis and Wound Healing

2016-05-18 / Categories:Hemostatic, Sponge,
Collagen binds to the specific receptor site on platelet membrane which swells and release substances which help in haemostasis4. Collagen binds to fibronectin, causing platelet adhesion. It attracts monocytes which transform into macrophages. Macrophages release substances that result in fibroplasias and angiogenesis5. Collagen provides support for the growth of new capillaries. The presence of new capillaries is essential for the deposition of new fibers. Collagen directly supports the growth, attachment, differentiation and migration of keratinocytes. By binding with fibronectin, collagen provides a provisional matrix for keratinocytes migration. It also helps in wound remodeling.

We selected Gelatin in place of collagen since it is a denatured type of collagen which is obtained by hydrolysis of collagen molecules. Gelatin has structural similarities as well as similar properties as of collagen so it also can be used as haemostatic and for wound remodelling. It is completely resorbable in-vivo and its physicochemical properties can be modulated due to existence of many functional groups8. Collagen is known to have wide biomedical applications but expresses antigenicity in physiological condition; gelatin has no such antigenicity. Gelatin has been used in wide variety of wound dressing 9-10. Recently gelatin has shown to exhibit activation of macrophages and high haemostatic effect11. Gelatin is practically more convenient than collagen because a concentrated collagen solution is extremely difficult to prepare from the native collagen, and furthermore gelatin is far more economical than the collagen.

Gelatin is used in biodegradable materials. It can be converted into other forms such as sponges by crosslinking of gelatin. Physical crosslinking of gelatin film is generally carried out by thermal heating and ultraviolet irradiations. For chemical crosslinking of gelatin several crosslinking agents such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, water soluble carbodiimides, diepoxy compounds, diisocynates are used. These agents form amide bridges within the amino acids present in the gelatin and cause crosslinking of the gelatin. The toxicity of crosslinking agent should be taken into consideration while development of gelatin sponges.

The aim of current study was to prepare crosslinked gelatin sponges and to investigate their physical, chemical, mechanical and morphological characteristics. The ultimate goal of this study is to evaluate the haemostatic and wound healing effect of these sponges compared with conventional wound dressing in order to prove their applicability to a new type of biodegradable wound dressing.


Type A gelatin prepared by acidic treatment to porcine skin was procured from Nitta Gelatin (Canada) and had the following characteristics: gel strength on bloom scale 272, pH 4.7, viscosiy of 5% solution was 44mPas at 60 o C. It was used without further purification. Formaldehyde solution (37-41%), conc. sulphuric acid, sodium bicarbonate, hydrochloric acid and chromotropic acid were ordered from S.D.Fine chemicals, Mumbai.

Chromotropic acid reagent consisted of 50mg of chromotropic acid per 100ml of mixture of 9ml concentrated sulphuric acid and 4ml of water. TNBS (≥98% pure) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich. Double distilled water was used for all experimental work. All the chemicals utilized were ACS reagent grade.

All in-vivo studies mentioned here were carried out after approving the protocol from Animal ethical committee of C.U.Shah College of Pharmacy, Mumbai.